- access to ICT, which encompasses availability, accessibility, and quality of ICT resources with a special focus on (connected) technologies that can support learning (e.g. digital learning resources, learning management systems, etc.)
- use of ICT, which covers the intensity as well as the types and modalities of ICT use by students in an informal, and possibly unsupervised, environment for learning and leisure, and in a supervised situation in the classroom, notably through teachers’ pedagogical practices with ICT;1 it also includes alternative uses of ICT by teachers to support teaching.
- students’ ICT competencies, which describe the core competency areas identified in existing assessment frameworks for “digital literacy” as well as attitudes and dispositions towards ICT use (for learning and for leisure). A self-efficacy measure is proposed to assess students’ ICT competencies.
Adrien Lorenceau, Camille Marec and Tarek Mostafa (OECD). UPGRADING THE ICT QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS IN PISA 2021 OECD Education Working Paper No. 202.
It was noted that the questions were not useful for the teachers themselves, while they might possibly use them to get a feeling for the ICT skills of their students.
That the form is not possible to fill in online was a definite drawback, as it also requires manual tallying of the results.